Citation Information :
Shanmugam L, Mandal J, Biswal N, Joseph NM. Study of Prevalence of Campylobacter Gastroenteritis among Pediatric Population Using a Multiplex PCR in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Puducherry, South India. J Gastrointest Infect 2021; 11 (1):9-14.
Background and objectives:Campylobacter is one of the four common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. Campylobacter infection is more common in developing than in developed countries. As conventional methods pose a great difficulty for the isolation and identification of this organism, molecular methods are much preferred.
Materials and methods: A total of 133 stool samples were collected from children less than 13 years presenting to pediatric outpatient department and the emergency department in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. The stool samples were extracted, and the DNA was subjected to multiplex PCR to detect Campylobacter species, followed by sequencing.
Results:Campylobacter species was detected in 13 children (9.7% of the study population) (95% CI: 5.5–16.4), with Campylobacter jejuni (11 of 13) being the predominant species. The prevalence was higher in children less than 24 months (18.18%) with a higher predisposition to girls (14.29%). The most common clinical presentation was found to be acute watery diarrhea (10%). Campylobacter detection was higher from August to November (62%), with the highest incidence in October (22.3%). Campylobacter was detected in six (21.4%) children who had contact with pets.
Conclusion: The study reveals that the prevalence of Campylobacter infection was high in Puducherry. There is an increased need to implement molecular assays for the routine detection of Campylobacter in all clinical pediatric stool samples.
World Health Organization. Campylobacter. Fact Sheet. 2012. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/Campylobacter [Last accessed on February 14, 2021].
CDC (Centre for Disease Control). Campylobacter (Campylobacteriosis). 2019. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/campylobacter/technical.html [Last accessed on February 14, 2021].
Lakshminarayanan S, Jayalakshmy R. Diarrheal diseases among children in India: current scenario and future perspectives. J Nat Sci Biol 2015;6(1):24. DOI: 10.4103/0976-9668.149073.
Facciolà A, Riso R, Avventuroso E, et al. Campylobacter: from microbiology to prevention. J Prev Med Hyg 2017;58(2):E79–E92. PMID: 28900347.
Yumpu.com. manual-of-clinical-microbiology-10th-edition. yumpu.com. 2021. Available from: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/16493871/manual-of-clinical-microbiology-10th-edition.
Garénaux A, Jugiau F, Rama F, et al. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni strains from different origins under oxidative stress conditions: effect of temperature. Curr Microbiol 2008;56(4):293–297. DOI: 10.1007/s00284-007-9082-8.
Merino FJ, Agulla AN, Villasante PA, et al. Comparative efficacy of seven selective media for isolating Campylobacter jejuni. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24(3):451–452. PMID: 3760137.
Le Bars H, Kayal S, Bonnaire-Mallet M, et al. CASA chromogenic medium for enteric Campylobacter species. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49(10):3675–3677. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00899-11.
samplesize_forsensitivity_specificitystudiesLinNaing (5). Google Docs. 2018. Available from: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/18gdccjRvXSRcOzGdYunSRmmBmcO3R-cAJ8jV0eCVl1o/edit?usp=drive_web&ouid=111114190325097128798&usp=embed_facebook.
Ghosh R, Uppal B, Aggarwal P, et al. A comparative study of conventional and molecular techniques in the diagnosis of Campylobacter gastroenteritis in children. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2014;44(1):7. PMID: 24695473.
El-Adawy H, Hotzel H, Tomaso H, et al. Elucidation of colonization time and prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species during turkey rearing using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Poult Sci 2012;91(2):454–459. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-01810.
Denis M, Soumet C, Rivoal K, et al. Development of a m-PCR assay for simultaneous identification of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. Lett Appl Microbiol 1999;29(6):406–410. DOI: 10.1046/j.1472-765x.1999.00658.x.
Glare EM, Divjak M, Bailey MJ, et al. β-Actin and GAPDH housekeeping gene expression in asthmatic airways is variable and not suitable for normalising mRNA levels. Thorax 2002;57(9):765–770. DOI: 10.1136/thorax.57.9.765.
Salim SM, Mandal J, Parija SC. Isolation of Campylobacter from human stool samples. Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32(1):35–38. DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.124294.
Borkakoty B, Jakharia A, Sarmah MD, et al. Prevalence of Campylobacter enteritis in children under 5 years hospitalised for diarrheain two cities of Northeast India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2020;38(1):32–36. DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_498.
Mohakud NK, Patra SD, Kumar S, et al. Detection and molecular typing of Campylobacter isolates from human and animal faeces in coastal belt of Odisha, India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2019;37(3):345–350. DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_19_394.
Mukherjee P, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya MK, et al. Campylobacter jejuni in hospitalised patients with diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis 2013;19(7):1155–1156. DOI: 10.3201/eid1907.121278.
Rizal A, Kumar A, Vidyarthi AS. Prevalence of pathogenic genes in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry and human. Internet J Food Safety 2010;12:29–34.
Rajendran P, Babji S, George AT, et al. Detection and species identification of Campylobacter in stool samples of children and animals from Vellore, South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2012;30(1):85. DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.93049.
Vaishnavi C, Singh M, Thakur JS, et al. Low prevalence of campylobacteriosis in the Northern region of India. Adv Microbiol 2015;5(03):155. DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.53015.
Rajan DP, Mathan VI. Prevalence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in healthy populations in southern India. J Clin Microbiol 1982;15(5):749–751. DOI: 10.1128/jcm.15.5.749-751.1982.
Jie CH, Sun XT, Zheng ZE, et al. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. Chin Med J 2011;124(10):1508–1512. PMID: 21740807.
Szczepanska B, Andrzejewska M, Spica D, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children and environmental sources in urban and suburban areas. BMC Microbiol 2017;17(1):80. DOI: 10.1186/s12866-017-0991-9.
Kaakoush NO, Castaño-Rodríguez N, Mitchell HM, et al. Global epidemiology of Campylobacter infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2015;28(3):687–720. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00006-15.
Adekunle O, Coker A, Kolawole D. Incidence, isolation and characterisation of Campylobacter species in Osogbo. Biol Med 2009;1(1):24–27.
Weinberger M, Lerner L, Valinsky L, et al. Increased incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection and high rates among children, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis 2013;19(11):1828–1831. DOI: 10.3201/eid1911.120900.
Glass RI, Stoll BJ, Huq MI, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical features of endemic Campylobacter jejuni infection in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis 1983;148(2):292–296. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/148.2.292.
Nielsen HL, Ejlertsen T, Engberg J, et al. High incidence of Campylobacter concisus in gastroenteritis in North Jutland, Denmark: a population-based study. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013;19(5):445–450. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03852.x.
Kapperud G, Lassen J, Ostroff SM, et al. Clinical features of sporadic Campylobacter infections in Norway. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(6): 741–749. DOI: 10.3109/00365549209062459.
Pintar KD, Christidis T, Thomas MK, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the Campylobacter spp. prevalence and concentration in household pets and petting zoo animals for use in exposure assessments. PLoS One 2015;10(12):e0144976. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144976.
Huang JL, Xu HY, Bao GY, et al. Epidemiological surveillance of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken, dairy cattle and diarrheapatients. Epidemiol Infect 2009;137(8):1111–1120. DOI: 10.1017/S09502688 09002039.
Kasper, Fauci, Hauser, Longo, Jameson, Loscalzo. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 19th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2015. p. 264.