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Chapter-06 Cardiomyopathies

BOOK TITLE: Echo

Author
1. Luthra Atul
ISBN
9788180614361
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/11076_6
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2005
Pages
16
Author Affiliations
1. Physician and Cardiologist, New Delhi, India, Medical and Heart Specialist, New Delhi, India, National Board of Medicine, Delhi, India, National Board of Medicine; New Delhi, India
Chapter keywords

Abstract

Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of the heart muscle. An idiopathic cardiomyopathy means to a condition that has no known underlying cause. There are three important types of idiopathic cardiomyopathies, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCMP), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM). In DCMP, M-mode and 2-D echo show dilatation of all the four cardiac chambers particularly of the left ventricle, which thereby assumes a more globular shape. Reduced LV wall thickness, reduced systolic thickening and reduced amplitude of wall motion are also seen. The reduced LV wall motion is generalized or global rather than regional. This is known as global hypokinesia. In RCMP, M-mode and 2-D echo show thickening of LV and RV free wall and IVseptum. The thickness of LVPW and IVS in diastole exceeds 12 mm and that of the RV free wall is >5 mm. Reduction in internal dimensions and cavity size of LV and RV with cavity obliteration at LV and RV apex is also seen in a case of RCMP. Asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) is observed in 60% cases of HOCM while 30% show concentric myocardial hypertrophy and in 5-10% cases, the hypertrophy is confined to the apices of the ventricles.

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