EXPORT CITATION

Chapter-34 Ocular Inflammation

BOOK TITLE: Drug Screening Methods: Preclinical Evaluation of New Drugs

Author
1. Saxena Rohit
2. Srivastava Sushma
ISBN
9788184486186
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/10244_34
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2009
Pages
13
Author Affiliations
1. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2. Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), MB Road, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3, New Delhi (India), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical, Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar, Sector -3, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical, Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar Sector-3, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3, New Delhi, India, Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Chapter keywords

Abstract

Any type of ocular inflammation can affect the vision of an individual. The recurrent inflammation requires immediate attention as several internal structures get adversely affected and vision is hampered. Gram-negative bacterial infections cause severe ocular surface inflammations. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial membrane has potent proinflammatory and proapoptotic effect, which is mediated through membrane receptors expressed on host cells. Inflamed cells or tissues release inflammation mediators (histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandin, leukotriene’s, cytokines, etc.) in case of acute or chronic inflammation. The concentration of mediators suggests the degree of inflammation. The efficacy of the anti-inflammatory drug can be evaluated by determining the levels of these mediators. The ethical and practical limitations prevent the availability of human ocular tissues with active inflammation at different time intervals. Therefore the studies on animal models remain the main source of the information. Various animal models have been established to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of new therapeutic interventions. The models are mainly categorized into non-immunogenic model and immunogenic model. Besides inflammation can be produced experimentally by inflicting injury to the cornea.

© 2019 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.   |   All Rights Reserved