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Chapter-41 Diabetic Retinopathy

BOOK TITLE: Drug Screening Methods: Preclinical Evaluation of New Drugs

Author
1. Mathur Rajani
2. Srivastava Sushma
3. Joshi Sujata
ISBN
9788184486186
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/10244_41
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2009
Pages
10
Author Affiliations
1. Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (Delhi University), Pushp Vihar, New Delhi, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), MB Road, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3, New Delhi (India), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical, Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical, Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar Sector-3, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India
2. Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), MB Road, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3, New Delhi (India), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical, Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar, Sector -3, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical, Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar Sector-3, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3, New Delhi, India, Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
3. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029 (India), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
Chapter keywords

Abstract

Diabetic Retinopathy is associated with long-standing diabetes. It remains as one of the leading cause of blindness. Diabetic Retinopathy has been understood as a microvascular complication, the pathogenesis of which is not completely understood. Microscopically, the basement membrane appears to be thickened with increased amounts of collagen and decreased amounts of proteoglycan. In conditions of high circulating levels of sugar, glucose non enzymatically reacts with amino groups in proteins to form Advanced Glycosylation End Products (AGE). AGE binds to matrix components of basement membrane, specific receptors on macrophages, and endothelial cells to initiate a cascade of release of cytokines, which in turn affect the proliferation, and function of vascular cells. Management of diabetic retinopathy remains a challenge with very few modalities available. There is a paucity of pharmacological approaches towards its management. Some of the molecules such as Acetyl-L-carnitine, Vitamin C, Magnesium, etc. have come into fore and have substantial role to play in both prevention and therapeutics. Therefore, screening of new molecules in pre-clinical and clinical studies against models of diabetic retinopathy, takes prime importance.

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