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Chapter-18 Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids and Antioxidants on Glaucoma

BOOK TITLE: Nutrition and the Eye

Author
1. Pinelli Roberto
2. Elborgy Ebrahim
ISBN
9788184488623
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/11052_18
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2010
Pages
9
Author Affiliations
1. Scientific Director of the Instituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Suite Via Cefalonia, 70 25124 Brescia, Italy, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, 70, 25124 Brescia, Italy, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia, Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefelonia, 70, 25124 Brescia, Italy, Instituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, 70, 25124 Brescia (Italy), Instituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, 70, 25124 Brescia, Italy, Instituto Laser Microchirurgia, Oculare Crystal Place, Via Cefalonia, 70, 25124 Brescia, Italy, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Brescia, Italy, Crystal Palace Via Cefalonia, 70 25124 Brescia, Italy, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia, Oculare Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, 70, 25124, Brescia, Italy, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, 70, 25124, Brescia, Italy, Instituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, Brescia, Italy, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, Brescia, Italy, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, Brescia, Italy, www.ilmo.it, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia, 70, Brescia, Italy, Microchirurgia Oculare, Crystal Palace, Suite, Via Cefalonia, 70 25124 Brescia - Italy, European School for Advanced Studies in Ophthalmology (ESASO), Universitá della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland, Istituto Laser Microchirurgia Oculare Crystal Palace, Via Cefalonia 70 25124, Brescia, Italy
2. Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt
Chapter keywords

Abstract

Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness in the US, especially in African Americans and Hispanic Americans, in whom it is the leading cause. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an established risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and the treatments currently available for managing glaucoma focus on lowering patient’s IOP. Latanoprost (Xalatan) is a potent IOP-lowering drug that is widespread in its use for managing glaucoma. It is believed to exert its IOP-lowering effects mainly by increasing uveoscleral flow through the iris root and ciliary body, which comprises 5-15% of the total flow. Newer IOP-lowering drugs that are also prostaglandin-type agonists include bimatoprost and travopost. Prostaglandins have been valued mostly as therapeutic agents for glaucoma patients; alteration in the endogenous production or variations in the physiologic concentrations of ocular prostaglandins in healthy populations may be related to the likelihood of developing glaucoma. Oxidative stress may contribute to glaucoma etiology and progression. A variety of defensive mechanisms against free radicals formed by light-catalyzed reactions protect trabecular meshwork cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated a decrease in aqueous outflow facility after perfusion with hydrogen peroxide when pressure was elevated or when glutathione was depleted. Endogenus oxidation-reduction agents, such as glutathione, have been found to be protective against glutamate-induced toxicity. Antioxidant supplementation may enhance trabecular meshwork function and protect the optic nerve. Higher total intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, or vitamin A substantially reduced risks of primary open-angle glaucoma. Ascorbic acid, which is 15 times higher in concentration in the aqueous humor than in plasma, may reduce intraocular pressure by the depolymerization of the trabecular meshwork’s hyaluronic acid component.

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