Chapter-09 Biodynamic and Emergency Management of Blast Eye and Orbital Injuries

BOOK TITLE: Recent Advances in Ophthalmology—9

1. Shuker Sabri T
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Baghdad Medical City, Baghdad, Maxillofacial Surgeon,West Bloomfield, MI, USA
Chapter keywords


Thousands of people have been losing their vision due to penetrating eye injuries because modern vitreoretinal surgical techniques are not being performed when needed. Blast injury management in general and eye and orbital blast injuries specifically should need more attention and interest among ophthalmologists and other related specialties. Between the years 1947 and 2000, there were 280 local wars with 25 million deaths and 100 million casualties. 15 million of them expected to have some sort of eye or orbital injuries. Currently there are approximately 40 violent conflicts are actively going on. Blast ocular trauma causes hyphema, corneoscleral lacerations, penetrating injuries of eyeball, traumatic cataracts, retinal detachment and optic nerve injury. The ocular trauma may be associated with fracture of the bones of nose and orbit, brain damage, maxillofacial crushed fractures and multisystem injuries. When time is critical due to handling mass casualties and multisystem major injuries, the primary or secondary eye and orbital injuries are unfortunately likely to remain untreated because of life-saving priorities. In the case of a continuous flow of new casualties in long-standing front-line battle or more than one explosion in one city that exhausts medical resources, eye injuries should not be missed. In a study to determine the type and frequency of ocular injuries in patients with major trauma, 16% of the cohort had ocular or orbital trauma. Of patients with injuries involving the face, 55% had ocular or orbital injuries.

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