Unless precautions are taken, there is a high possibility that patients and dental health care personnel (DHCP) will be exposed to blood and other potentially pathogenic infectious material. Infection control refers to a comprehensive and systemic program that, when applied prevents the transmission of infectious agents among persons who are in direct or indirect contact with the health care environment. It is important to have basic knowledge and understanding of the infection control procedures and standard precautions to be followed in the dental practice. This chapter outlines the concepts and procedures of infection control in dental practice including the rationale of infection control in dentistry, components of infection control with detailed description of barrier techniques to be used, needle and sharp instrument safety, and instrument sterilization and disinfection. Also dealt with are surface disinfection and operatory asepsis, with a note on care of handpieces, antiretraction valves, and other intraoral devices attached to air and water lines of dental units, and disposal of biomedical waste.