The present chapter aims to outline the concept and principles of primary health care. Primary health care is described as “health by the people and placing people’s health in people’s hands”. It is not merely the first level of contact by individual, the family and community with the national health system. Primary health care approach integrates at the community level all the factors required for improving the health status of the population. The concept of primary health care came into existence in 1978 following a joint WHO UNICEF international conference of Alma-Ata in the former Soviet-Union. The conference called for acceptance of the WHO goal of “health for all by 2000AD” and primary health care was accepted as the key to achieve the goal of Health for all by 2000 AD. It is based on the principles of equity, wider coverage, individual and community involvement and intersectoral coordination. Primary care clinicians may be physicians, nurses, or various other health workers trained for the purpose. In primary care, all types of problems, at all ages and for both genders, are considered, including care for acute self-limited problems or injuries, the care of chronic diseases such as diabetes or AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the provision of preventive care services such as immunizations and family planning, and health education.