EXPORT CITATION

Chapter-30 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

BOOK TITLE: Recent Advances in Pediatrics (Volume 20: Hot Topics)

Author
1. Prasad VSV
2. Dayal Anjul
3. Sridhar M
ISBN
9789350252475
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/11254_30
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2011
Pages
8
Author Affiliations
1. Lotus Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad, AP, India, Children’s Medical Center, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Lotus Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Lotus Hospitals for Women and Children, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2. Lotus Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad, AP, India, Lotus Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Continental Children’s Center, Continental Hospitals, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Continental Children’s Center, Continental Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, Continental Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3. Lotus Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad, AP, India
Chapter keywords

Abstract

Initially termed, “shock lung” and “adult respiratory distress syndrome”, acute respiratory distress (ARDS) refers to the severe end of the spectrum of acute lung injury manifesting as tachypnea, hypoxia and decreased lung compliance and occurring in all ages groups including the neonatal period. According to the consensus definition, ARDS is a syndrome of acute and persistent lung inflammation with increased vascular permeability. Causes can be classified as direct and indirect depending on mode of lung injury. Due to direct (pneumonia, aspiration, inhalation, pulmonary embolism, trauma, drowning, etc. or indirect (sepsis, shock, pancreatitis, poisoning, post-bypass, pot-transplant, abdominal surgery, etc.) injury to lungs, there occurs activation of inflammatory and coagulation cascade. Three phases of ARDS are exudative phase (7 days), fibroproliferative phase (7-21 days) and recovery phase (after 21 days). Characteristic radiological findings are decreased lung volume, atelectasis, air bronchogram and sometimes pleural effusion. CT scan shows heterogenous opacities, consolidation in dependent areas ad aeration in nondependent areas of the lungs. Management of ARDS/ALI starts with treating the precipitating cause. The main goals of mechanical ventilation in ARDS/ALI are to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury and to maintain adequate oxygenation.

© 2019 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.   |   All Rights Reserved