EXPORT CITATION

Chapter-6.8 Diseases of the Ocular Surface

BOOK TITLE: Postgraduate Ophthalmology (2 Volumes)

Author
1. Vanathi M
2. Kusumesh Rakhi
3. Agarwal Shweta S
4. Iyer Geetha Krishnan
ISBN
9789350252703
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/11051_24
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2012
Pages
69
Author Affiliations
1. Clinical Ophthalmology, Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar New Delhi, India, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, AIIMS, New Delhi, India, Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2. Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3. Sankara Nethralaya A Unit of Medical Research Foundation, Nungambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4. Dr G Sitalakshmi Memorial Ocular Surface Clinic, Sankara Nethralaya A Unit of Medical Research Foundation, Nungambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Chapter keywords
conjunctiva, transparent vascularized mucous membrane, anterior surface of the eyeball, posterior surface of the eyelids, mucus, tear film, immunocompetent cells, immunoglobulins, immune reactions, autoimmune fibrosing conjunctivitis, nonautoimmune fibrosing conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, ocular examination, ocular allergy, pterygium, nutritional disease of the eye, dry eye disease, arthritis, thyroid dysfunction, tear film integrity, ocular surface, lacrimal glands, immunological diseases of the eye, ocular immune privilege, immunological disorders of the cornea, ocular surface manifestations, immunological disorders, dry eye, scleritis, episcleritis, corneal melt, systemic vasculitides, inflammatory diseases, immunopathogenesis, blood vessels, primary systemic vasculitis (PSV), polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis

Abstract

The conjunctiva is the transparent vascularized mucous membrane covering the anterior surface of the eyeball and posterior surface of the eyelids, serving to secrete mucus, which forms an important part of the tear film and defensive functions. It contains immunocompetent cells that are involved in synthesizing immunoglobulins, and initializing and mediating immune reactions. Autoimmune fibrosing conjunctivitis, nonautoimmune fibrosing conjunctivitis, and allergic conjunctivitis are discussed. Ocular examination is usually sufficient for making differential diagnosis of ocular allergy. Other diseases of the conjunctiva include pterygium and nutritional disease of the eye. Dry eye disease is more frequently found in patients with arthritis, thyroid dysfunction, and poor general health. The tear film integrity and the health of the ocular surface are extremely important in maintaining optical clarity of the cornea. Drying of the ocular surface because of decreased afferent secretion stimulates the afferent receptors on the ocular surface leading to reflex secretion from the lacrimal glands and thus causing tearing. Immunological diseases of the eye, ocular immune privilege, and immunological disorders of the cornea are discussed. Ocular surface manifestations of immunological disorders include dry eye, scleritis or episcleritis, and corneal melt. Systemic vasculitides comprise a large group of inflammatory diseases with a suggestive or proven immunopathogenesis involving blood vessels of various sizes and affecting various organ systems. Primary systemic vasculitis (PSV), polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, and so on are discussed. Scleritis, episcleritis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, and Mooren’s ulcer are described.

© 2019 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.   |   All Rights Reserved

Powered by MPS ScholarStor