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Chapter-12.7 Retinal Vascular Diseases

BOOK TITLE: Postgraduate Ophthalmology (2 Volumes)

Author
1. Venkatesh Pradeep
2. Rishi Karandeep
ISBN
9789350252703
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/11051_52
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2012
Pages
15
Author Affiliations
1. Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Dr RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Dr RP Center for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Dr RP Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India, All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India, Dr. R.P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Dr RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, AIIMS, Delhi, India, Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Vitreo-retina
2. Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute for Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Chapter keywords
retinal vasculature, vascular occlusive disease, retinal artery occlusion, ophthalmic emergency, intraocular pressure, occlusion, retinal venous system, arterial occlusions, ischemic index, capillary, fluorescein angiography, macular edema, macular nonperfusion, retinal neovascularization, retinal hemorrhages, ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS), ipsilateral severe carotid obstructive disease, carotid artery obstruction, inflammatory vascular diseases, primary retinal vasculitis, secondary (retinal) inflammatory vasculopathy, vasculitis, Eales disease, bilateral retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, retinal vasculitis, cardinal feature, sarcoid disease process, vascular tumors of the retina, cavernous hemangioma, capillary hemangioma, retinal vasoproliferative tumors, racemose hemangioma, congenital retinal arteriovenous malformation, retinal venous circulations, retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), age related macular degeneration, subretinal space, laser photocoagulati

Abstract

The diseases involving the retinal vasculature can be divided into categories, such as vascular occlusive disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, vascular tumors of the retina, and so on. Retinal artery occlusion is a true ophthalmic emergency and efforts such as lowering the intraocular pressure should be tried if the presentation is within 24 hours. Occlusion of the retinal venous system is more common than arterial occlusions. The ischemic index is calculated based on the extent of capillary non-perfusion evident on fluorescein angiography. Fluorescein angiography for macular edema, macular nonperfusion, retinal neovascularization is performed only after retinal hemorrhages have cleared adequately. Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) is caused by ipsilateral severe carotid obstructive disease. Flow abnormalities start when the carotid artery obstruction is more than 70 per cent. Inflammatory vascular diseases discuss primary retinal vasculitis, secondary (retinal) inflammatory vasculopathy or vasculitis, and so on. Eales disease is an idiopathic, usually peripheral, invariably bilateral retinal vasculitis resulting in peripheral non-perfusion and neovascularization in young otherwise healthy male population. Retinal vasculitis is a cardinal feature of posterior segment involvement by sarcoid disease process. Vascular tumors of the retina comprise cavernous hemangioma, capillary hemangioma, retinal vasoproliferative tumors, and so on. Racemose hemangioma is congenital retinal arteriovenous malformation that connects and shunts blood from the retinal arterial to the retinal venous circulations. Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) is a type of neovascular age related macular degeneration with capillary proliferation in the retinal and subretinal space. Laser photocoagulation is indicated only in a limited number of patients as most telangiectasias are situated close to or within the foveal avascular zone.

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