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Chapter-13.2 Pathological Lesions of the Orbit

BOOK TITLE: Postgraduate Ophthalmology (2 Volumes)

Author
1. Gupta Roshmi
2. Honavar Santosh G
ISBN
9789350252703
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/11051_58
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2012
Pages
30
Author Affiliations
1. LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India, Oncology Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Vishakapatnam, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Vishakhapatnam, India, Narayana Nethralaya, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Vishakhapatnam, Orissa, India, Vasan Eye Care, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, Narayana Nethralaya Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, India
2. LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute, LV Prasad Marg,Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute, LV Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, LV Prasad Eye Institute, LV Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Oculoplasty and Ocular Oncology LV Prasad Eye Institute, LV Prasad Marg, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Medical Services, CFS Group; Ophthalmic and Facial Plastic Surgery and Ocular Oncology, Center for Sight, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Super Specialty Hospital Center for Sight, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Centre for Sight Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Centre for Sight, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
Chapter keywords
congenital and structural lesions, orbit, hypertelorism, craniofacial anomalies, craniosynostosis, clefting syndromes, silent sinus syndrome, craniofacial clefts, radiation, medications, utero, thyroid ophthalmopathy, thyroid orbitopathy, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), thyroid eye disease (TED), cystic lesions, orbital dermoid cysts, choristomas, orbital sutures, cranial orbital cephaloceles, intracranial contents, trauma, atrophy of the orbital fat, enophthalmic appearance, orbital fracture, infections of the orbit, clinical presentations, bacterial infections, ocular and systemic manifestations, fungal or parasitic infections, space-occupying lesions, bacterial orbital cellulitis, inflammatory proptosis, orbital fungal infection, fungi-mucor, aspergillus, orbital inflammations, orbital vascular lesions, malformations, shunts, neoplasia, arteriovenous shunt, carotid-cavernous fistula, dural shunt

Abstract

Some of the relevant congenital and structural lesions of the orbit include hypertelorism, craniofacial anomalies, craniosynostosis, clefting syndromes, and silent sinus syndrome. Craniofacial clefts may be caused by multiple factors, such as radiation, certain medications, or alcohol acting in utero. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is also called thyroid orbitopathy, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), thyroid eye disease (TED), and Graves’ disease. Cystic lesions are common space occupying lesions of the orbit. Orbital dermoid cysts are choristomas, and develop at the orbital sutures. Cranial orbital cephaloceles are expansion of the intracranial contents into the orbit. The orbit and its contents are peculiarly vulnerable to trauma for a number of reasons. After trauma, atrophy of the orbital fat may also cause an enophthalmic appearance; this is to be differentiated from orbital fracture. Infections of the orbit have myriad of clinical presentations. Bacterial infections may have an acute onset, with severe ocular and systemic manifestations. Others such as fungal or parasitic infections manifest as space-occupying lesions. Bacterial orbital cellulitis is one of the common causes of inflammatory proptosis. Orbital fungal infection is by predominantly two classes of fungi-mucor and aspergillus. Orbital inflammations are discussed. The major orbital vascular lesions are the malformations, shunts and neoplasia of the orbit. The arteriovenous shunt is also called a carotid-cavernous fistula or a dural shunt.

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