Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Basic and Clinical Concepts

by Meeta

Osteoporosis is the most common bone disorder affecting humans. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, which predisposes a person to an increased risk of fracture. The outcomes in morbidity and mortality can be devastating. Osteoporosis, especially prevalent among older postmenopausal women, increases the risk of hip and spine fractures, associated with particularly high morbidity and mortality in this population. Thus, the primary goal of osteoporosis therapy is to prevent fractures. The evaluation of postmenopausal women for osteoporosis risk requires a medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Major risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis (as defined by bone mineral density) include advanced age, genetics, lifestyle factors (such as low calcium and vitamin D intake, smoking), thinness, and menopause status. Management focuses first on nonpharmacologic measures, such as a balanced diet, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, adequate exercise, smoking cessation, avoidance of excessive alcohol intake, and fall prevention. Pharmacological agents used include bisphosphonates, selective estrogen-receptor modulators, parathyroid hormone, estrogens and calcitonin. The book discusses the causes and/or risk factors, complications, diagnosis, investigations and treatment for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

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