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Chapter-13 Acid-Base Balance

BOOK TITLE: Essentials of Biochemistry (For Medical Students)

Author
1. B Shivananda Nayak
ISBN
9789350905241
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/11965_13
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2013
Pages
11
Author Affiliations
1. University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies; Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Acid-base balance, Bicarbonate buffer, Hemoglobin buffer, Metabolic acidosis, Metabolic alkalosis, Buffer system, Renal regulation, Respiratory acidosis, Respiratory alkalosis, Respiratory regulation, Acid-base concentration

Abstract

The human body is a complex system, which consists of several levels and subsystems. At the chemical level, acids and bases is one of the essential compounds upon which all biochemical processes depend. The acid-base homeostasis should be maintained for cellular viability, enzymatic reactions, protein conformation and CNS functions, etc. These functions are modified when there is change in the cellular and extracellular acid-base status. Carbonate bicarbonate, phosphate buffer, protein buffer (hemoglobin) are the major buffer systems of our body, help to maintain the balance. The respiratory system also participates in the regulation of acid-base balance, whenever there is a change in the acid-base concentration either by eliminating or retaining CO2. Kidney plays an important role in the regulation of acid-base concentration by excreting either acidic or basic urine. Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis are the two acid-base disorders, whenever there is a disturbance in the metabolism. Hypo- or hyperventilation causes respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

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