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Chapter-012 Oral Antidiabetic Drugs

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Chadha Manoj
2. Dhamija Puneet
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_14
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
8
Author Affiliations
1. P.D. Hinduja National Hospital, Mumbai, B.Y.L. Nair Hospital and T.N. Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, PD Hinduja Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, PD Hinduja Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, PD Hinduja Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, PD Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
Chapter keywords
Sulfonylureas, glyburide, nateglinide, metformin, leukemia, pioglitazone, miglitol, acarbose

Abstract

Hyperglycemia is the cardinal aspect of diabetes mellitus (DM). Apart from insulin a number of drugs are available for managing hyperglycemia. Oral antidiabetic drug is a better suitable term for the drugs that are used in the management of hyperglycemia in diabetes. The classes of drugs used in the management of hyperglycemia are developing with every passing decade. The currently available classes of drugs available in India are well discussed in this chapter. Sulfonylureas block the ATP-sensitive potassium channels on β-islet cell plasma membrane. This advances to depolarization of membranes and release of calcium ions from intracellular stores. A detailed description of sulfonylureas is well exemplified. Repaglinide is benzoic acid derivative which has a mechanism of action similar to sulfonylurea. Metformin is the only member of biguanide class of drugs that act through multiple mechanisms and lower blood glucose levels. The drugs that are discussed in this chapter are thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucosidase inhibitors. For all the specified drugs, its mechanism of action and advantages are well explained.

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