Chapter-014f Smart Insulin and Future Developments

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Parmar Girish
2. Joshi Ameya S
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. PD Hinduja Hospital, Mumbai, KD Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, PD Hinduja National Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2. Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Bhaktivedanta Hospital and Research Institute, Thane, Maharashtra, India
Chapter keywords
Smart Insulin, bulk hydrogel matrix, phenylboronic acid, nanomembranes, nanogel, nanonetwork, closed-loop insulin delivery systems


This chapter gives an overview of smart insulins, their patents, advances and recent breakthroughs. A glucose sensor and an insulin delivery device are the default two components installed in every smart insulins. Conventional and nanotechnology are two historical classification of smart insulin. Protein binding ligand based, membrane based, bulk hydrogel matrix based and phenylboronic acid based are conventional types of smart insulin. Nanomembranes based, nanogel based and nanonetwork based are the nanotechnology types of smart insulin. Protein binding ligands use lectins and still there are no patents for this type. Bulk hydrogel matrix type uses hydrogel matrices and there is a delay in insulin release. Phenylboronic acid type needs alkaline pH to detect the glucose level. Nanocomposite biohybrid membranes and nanoplug are used in the nanomembranes. Nanogel is also called as smart sponge comprise of recombinant human insulin and enzyme nanocapsules in a pH-sensitive chitosen matrix. There are nearly 25 patents have been registered in last five years. Closed-loop insulin delivery systems are being developed with significant features.

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