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Chapter-022 Diabetes Mellitus and Lipids

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Menon Arun S
2. Shenoy Mohan T
3. Kumar Harish
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_29
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
5
Author Affiliations
1. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi 682 041, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India
2. Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India
3. Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India, IMNCI Project, WHO India Country Office, New Delhi
Chapter keywords
Coronary heart disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, statin therapy, aggressive statin therapy, myotoxicity

Abstract

Diabetes and dyslipidemia are the two major risk factors for atherosclerosis and they increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with diabetes exceeds 20% when compared to nondiabetic patients. Diabetes dyslipidemia is characterized by four features: hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high proportion of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and postprandial lipemia. Non-HDL cholesterol and postprandial triglyceride are also considered as major factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The physical activity and proper diet helps to control hypertension and diabetes. High-intensity statin therapy is used to reduce LDL cholesterol levels by more than 50% in the diabetic patients. The lipid lowering agents namely niacin, ezetimibe and fibrates are also helps in maintaining lipid level. The use of these agents may results in some adverse effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances, rash, nausea, headache and pancreatitis.

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