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Chapter-026 Oral Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Bajaj Sarita
2. Kalra Sanjay
3. Bathla Shalu
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_33
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
9
Author Affiliations
1. MLN Medical College, Allahabad, India, MLN Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad 211 001, UP, India, South Asian Federation of Endocrine Societies (SAFES); Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, UP, India, MLN Medical College, Allahabad (UP), India, Motilal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2. Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and B.R.I.D.E., Karnal 132 001, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE Karnal; Indian J Endocrinology Metabolism, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital, Karnal-132001, Haryana, India, Indian J Endocrinology and Metabolism; J of Social Health in Diabetes (JoSH Diabetes), Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India
3. MM Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Mullana (Ambala), India, MM College of Dental Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India, MM College of Dental Sciences and Research, Mullana (Ambala), Haryana, India
Chapter keywords
Periodontal disease, gingivitis, dental caries, xerostomia, candidiasis, oral lichen planus, neurosensory disorders, tetracycline

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects the quality and length of life by creating complications in tissue of the body and also the mucosal tissue of the oral cavity. Periodontal disease caused by gram-negative bacteria is the major complication of diabetes, along with cardiopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and loss of distal extremities. The pathophysiological changes such as vascular changes, alterations in gingival crevicular fluid and alterations in tissue metabolism influence the diabetic to periodontal disease. The three different mechanisms performed by periodontopathogens, that act as risk factor of DM are metastatic infection, injury and inflammation. Periodontal treatment assists in reducing periodontal inflammation and also helps to restore insulin sensitivity by improving glycemic control. The other common oral manifestations of diabetes include dental caries and periapical abscesses, xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction, recurring fungal infection, neurosensory disorders, taste disturbances, oral lichen planus, halitosis or bad breath and increased calculus formation are explained. The tetracycline antibiotics and chemically modified tetracycline agents are used to reduce host collagenase production and collagen degradation.

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