Chapter-029 Modern Biology and Diabetes

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Sridhar GR
2. C Sadishkumar Kamalanathan
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Vishakhapatnam, Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Krishnanagar, Vishakhapatnam, India, Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Visakhapatnam, India, Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Krishnanagar Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh India
2. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India
Chapter keywords
Pre-genome wide association studies, candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, monogenic diabetes, Wolcott-Rallison syndrome, personalized medicine


Modern biology deals with advancements in disciplines of cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics. It helps us to understand about the health and also in prevention of disease. The various studies such as pre-genome wide association, candidate gene association, genome-wide linkage, genome-wide association, quantitative metabolic trait and Indian studies has been conducted with the influence of modern biology to understand the genetics of type 2 diabetes. The defects of β-cell in alternate pathways are responsible for causing monogenic diabetes and it is associated with the Wolcott-Rallison or Wolfram syndromes. The genetic risk for type 1 diabetes is due to the specific alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of the HLA class II genes. The epigenetic changes such as chromatin modifications, DNA methylation, etc., also influence diabetic complications. The genetic information of a person is very helpful to predict diabetes mellitus, by altering lifestyle behavior.

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