India is in the hub of an epidemic of lack of exercise, of obesity, of the insulin resistance syndrome and of diabetes in younger persons. Traditionally, type 1 diabetes is the most trivial subtype of diabetes in the young. However, the proportion of subjects with type 2 diabetes seems to be high. This chapter focuses on both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the young population, with a focus on the Indian scenario. In addition to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the young, pancreatic diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are also reported in the young. The chapter gives a deep knowledge about epidemiology, differentiation between type 1 from type 2 diabetes, as well as diabetic complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Also it highlights treatment of type 1 diabetes and management of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. The results of this effort will not only provide insights into the pathogenesis of diabetes but also help in the valuable differentiation between the different subtypes of diabetes and prevent futile exposure to hyperglycemia.