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Chapter-037 Thyroid—Anatomy, Physiology, and Thyroid Function Tests

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Jayakumar RV
2. VP Praveen
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_46
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
11
Author Affiliations
1. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi 682 041, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, India, Amritha Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences School of Medicine, Kochi, Kerala, India, Amrita School of Medicine, Kochi, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India
2. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences Kochi, Kerala, India
Chapter keywords
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, congenital hypothyroidism, thyroglobulin, positron emission tomography scan, elastography, perchlorate discharge test, reverse T3

Abstract

Thyroid is characterized by a bilobed structure situated in the neck on either side of the thyroid cartilage below the hyoid bone. It is composed of basic units called thyroid follicles that act as factories and store houses of thyroid hormones. The development of the thyroid is from the endoderm of the branchial pouch. Improper regression of the thyroglossal duct results anatomical variants. A brief outline of the various physiological aspects of thyroid hormones is depicted in this chapter. Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, constituting 60–65% of their molecular weights. Thyroid function tests gives information regarding the status of the thyroid these hormones can be estimated by mass spectrometry, immunoassays and total hormones. The fallacies associated with the total hormone estimation led to attempts at estimating the free fraction and this chapter discusses about various methods of estimating thyroid which includes labelled antibody approach, automated assays, reverse T3 and many others. Perchlorate discharge test is used to demonstrate decreased organification process within the thyroid gland.

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