Chapter-038 Iodine Metabolism andThyroid Disorder

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Marwaha RK
2. Pandav Chandrakant S
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, Advanced Pediatric Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, International Life Sciences Institute; Thyroid Research Centre, INMAS, DRDO, New Delhi, India, International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI, India); Thyroid Research Centre, INMAS, DRDO, New Delhi, India
2. Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India
Chapter keywords
Hyperthyroidism, thyroperoxidase, myocardial contractility, hematopoiesis, goiter, cretinism, Graves’ disease


Iodine is an element belonging to the halogen category and essential micronutrient required for synthesis of thyroid hormone. Iodine is ingested by humans in several chemical forms; iodide, iodate, and organically bound iodine. Absorption of iodide takes place in stomach and duodenum, iodate and organically bound iodine is also absorbed in the form of iodide. Iodine is cleared from the circulation by the thyroid and kidney. Iodine transport in thyroid and synthesis of thyroid hormones is briefly explained here in this chapter. Thyroid adapts to the variable intake of iodine by modifying its activity where it is coordinated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid hormone regulates the functioning of a variety of organs including growth and development, reproductive function, and neurological development. Goiter is caused by the deficiency of iodine. Most adverse effect of iodine deficiency is due to its impact on fetus and severe iodine deficiency may lead to cretinism. However, high exposure to iodine may lead to transient inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis called “Wolff–Chaikoff Effect”.

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