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Chapter-042 Euthyroid Goiter and Thyroid Nodules

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Unnikrishnan AG
2. Bhavani Nisha
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_51
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
6
Author Affiliations
1. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, India, Chellaram Diabetes Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi 682 041, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, Kerala, India
Chapter keywords
Thryoid incidentaloma, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, multinodular goiter, Cystic thyroid nodules, total thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy

Abstract

Thyroid nodule is detected by either palpation or radiological means where it is characterized as a discrete lesion found within the thyroid gland that is distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. These nodules can be benign or malignant. The causes of thyroid nodules are listed in this chapter. Clinical examination is aimed at differentiating benign from malignant nodules. The usual presenting symptom of a thyroid nodule is thyroid incidentaloma and it is characterized as a thyroid nodule found incidentally on imaging of the neck for nonthyroid diseases. These nodules are investigated through several methods such as blood tests, ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, radionuclide scanning and so on. Evaluation of thyroid nodule and its management by surgical and non surgical methods are explained briefly in this chapter. The molecular markers for thyroid malignancy are BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR gamma mutations. The use of immunocytological and molecular cytogenetic techniques to improve the positive predictive value of FNAB of a thyroid nodule may become widespread in the future.

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