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Chapter-044 Carcinoma of the Thyroid

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Muraleedharan MV
2. Menon Arun S
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_53
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
7
Author Affiliations
1. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Lane, Elamakkara Post, Kochi, Kerala, India, Medical College, Thrissur, Andhra Pradesh, India, Government of Kerala, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
2. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi 682 041, Kerala, India, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India
Chapter keywords
Papillary cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma, lymphadenopathy, fine-needle aspiration cytology, cisplatin, carboplatin, medullary carcinoma of thyroid

Abstract

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and it is classified as differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma based on the histology and cells of origin. Papillary and follicular carcinoma of thyroid is classified under differentiated thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma under undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. The pathogenesis underlying thyroid cancers is abnormal and uncontrolled proliferation of single thyroid follicular cell. Various environmental factors include radiation exposure to head and neck in childhood, medical use of 131-Iodine and so on. Gold standard and final confirmation of the lesion is done by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgeries are the first option for the patients when it is possible and technically feasible but some patients are not the candidates for surgery then they should be treated with drugs such as doxorubicin, cisplatin and so on. Multimodality therapy is the use a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy and outcome is usually better with survival up to 70 months. This chapter discusses in detail about medullary carcinoma of thyroid, its types, clinical presentation and pathogenesis.

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