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Chapter-045 Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Dharmalingam Mala
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_54
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
12
Author Affiliations
1. MS Ramaiah Medical College Bengaluru, India, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru; Bangalore Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, MSR Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College; Bangalore Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, MSRMC, Banglore; BEDRC Diabetes Task Force and advisor Govt of Karnataka; Endocrine Society of India; KRSSDI, Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Thyroid disorders, urinary iodine concentration, trimester-specific TSH, hypothyroidism, Hyperemesis gravidarum

Abstract

Thyroid disorders are one of the most common endocrine problems during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the gland size increases depending on the iodine status. Higher levels of thyroid hormones in the blood and enlargement of thyroid glands are common to both pregnancy and thyroid disorders. There is an increased concentration of TBG during pregnancy, which occurs because of multiple reasons but mainly due to an increase in the blood estrogen levels. Human chorionic Gonadotropin hormone secreted from the placenta cause many of the alterations in thyroid function tests during pregnancy. Trimester-specific TSH also discussed here. The changes in the immune system during pregnancy have profound effects on autoimmune thyroid disease during pregnancy. Iodine nutrition is essential for normal neurointellectual development of the fetus. Hypothyroidism is prevalent in pregnancy and has complete detail of signs and symptoms, treatment, clinical features and evaluation of hypothyroidism. Hyperemesis gravidarum, thyroid nodule, thyroid storm and thyroid cancer also described here thoroughly.

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