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Chapter-046 Thyroid Disorders in Children

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Bhatia Vijayalakshmi
2. Desai Meena P
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_55
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
15
Author Affiliations
1. Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute, of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical, Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lacknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2. Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children and Institute of Child Health and Research Centre; Sir HN Medical Research Society, Mumbai, Maharashtra, BJ Wadra Hospital for Children and Institute of Child Health Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Chapter keywords
Thyroid Disorders, hypothyroidism, neonatal hypothyroidism, Thyroid dysgenesis, Iodine Deficiency, Autoimmune thyroid disease, Endemic iodine deficiency, goiter

Abstract

The three major forms of thyroid disorders in children are hypothyroidism, goiter, and hyperthyroidism. Etiopathogenesis of hypothyroidism in infancy and childhood depends on the process of thyroid embryogenesis, development, descent, and function. Physiological changes in thyroid hormones in the newborn constitute the basis of screening for CH. Mutation in pendrin gene causes dyshormonogenesis with CH and sensorineural deafness. Screening for neonatal hypothyroidism involves various diagnostic evaluations and it helps to confirm the nature of the disorder, the importance of thyroid hormones for physical and mental growth and maturation. Primary CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in infancy and early childhood and discussed with causes such as thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis, iodine deficiency etc. Hypothyroidism in newborns and infants, juvenile or acquired hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroid disease, goiter and acute and subacute thyroiditis etc., are also described here with various clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluations, management, prognosis and outcomes in thorough detail.

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