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Chapter-053 Posterior Pituitary and Disorders of Water Homeostasis

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Ayyar Vageesh S
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_68
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
12
Author Affiliations
1. St. John’s Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, St John’s Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Homeostasis, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, osmoregulation, baroregulation, polyuria, cerebral salt wasting, aquaretics, hypodipsia, etiopathology

Abstract

For the human body to function optimally, the internal environment must be constant. The history and neuroanatomy was briefly explained in this chapter. Neurophysiology describes about control of secretion, neurotransmitters, osmoregulation, baroregulation, other regulatory mechanisms, and biological action of arginine vasopressin. The next topic discussed is diabetes insipidus (DI) also known as polyuria which is the excretion of copious urine, in excess of 3 L/24 hours. It is classified into hypothalamic DI (HDI), nephrogenic DI (NDI), gestational DI (GDI), dipsogenic DI (DDI), differential diagnosis, and the treatment options for HDI, NDI, GDI, and DDI are also discussed. This chapter also discusses the background, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, cerebral salt wasting (CSW), and treatment for the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). The latter part of this chapter discusses about the newer developments in water homeostasis which includes vasopressin receptor antagonists— vaptans (aquaretics), and hypodipsia which includes definition and clinical characteristics; etiopathology and treatment.

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