Hypothalamus is an important and also a very small part of the diencephalon which involves in the mediation of endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral functions. It lies directly above the pituitary gland. Diencephalon is developed from the caudal part of the porencephalic vesicle. This vesicle is a cranial expansion of the primitive neural tube, and the hypothalamus is developed from the lateral wall of the diencephalon by ventrally extending to a groove called as hypothalamic sulcus. Though there is <1% of the total brain mass that is controlled by hypothalamus, it controls most of the vegetative emotional behavior, and endocrine functions of the body. The endocrine role of hypothalamus discusses about the classification and etiology of hypothalamic disorders, hypothalamic hormone deficiency, craniopharyngioma, hypothalamic hormone hypersecretion, neurogenic precocious puberty, neurogenic hypersecretion of growth hormone, growth hormone hypersecretion associated with metabolic disturbances, and neurogenic disorders of corticotropin regulation.