Chapter-068 Basics of Bone Physiology

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Tandon Nikhil
2. Rao Vupputuri Madhava
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India, All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, 433, Hawa Singh Block, ASAID, New Delhi 110049
2. Godavari Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India
Chapter keywords
bone cells, organic matrix, bone mineral, endochondral ossification, bone remodeling, bone turnover


Bone is a complex, and metabolically active tissue subserving locomotion, protection of vital organs and play a significant role in mineral homeostasis. Bone tissue has three components: bone cells, organic matrix, and bone mineral. It plays a significant role in bone development and physiology. Bones are formed by two different processes, intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Cellular and molecular control of skeletal development, osteoclast differentiation and function and structure and function of osteoclast are briefly described in this chapter. Bone remodeling is the process of bone resorption followed by bone formation. It is required for remove old matrix and stress-induced microfractures. Bone turnover takes place on the surface of bone and continues throughout life. The cycle takes 120 days. Coupling of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity consist of the basic multicellular unit (BMU) of bone. Systemic factors Influencing bone turnover and pathogenesis of osteoporosis are also discussed in this chapter.

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