Chapter-069 Basics of Mineral Physiology

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Mithal Ambrish
2. Sahu Monashis
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Medanta Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon 122 001, Haryana, India, Medanta, The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Medanta–The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Medanta the Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
2. VIMHANS, MAX, and ADIVA Hospital, New Delhi, India, Vidyasagar Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, New Delhi, India, Max Vimhans, New Delhi India
Chapter keywords
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, neuronal activation, muscle contraction, minerals


Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) are jointly grouped as the primary minerals of the body. The normal homeostatic regulation of the mineral ions occurs at three major target organs, intestine, kidney, and bone. Calcium ions play a vital role in various cellular processes like neuronal activation, muscle contraction, hormone secretion and serve as cofactors for many enzymes. The role of calcium in normal physiology, distribution of calcium and normal blood levels, absorption of calcium and excretion of calcium are the most important factors in the calcium physiology. Same as a phosphorus physiology, there are several factors (Role of phosphorus, distribution of phosphorus and normal ranges, absorption of phosphorus and renal excretion of phosphate) that play a vital role in phosphorus physiology. Magnesium is a significant cofactor of the enzyme. It is the most abundant divalent cation found intracellularly. Magnesium is also very important minerals of the body. These minerals play a significant role in many hormones i.e. parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and FGF-23.

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