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Chapter-073a Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Bansal Beena
2. Dhanwal Dinesh Kumar
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_90
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
4
Author Affiliations
1. Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon 122 001, Haryana, India, Medanta–The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Medanta, the Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
2. NMC Speciality Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE; Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
Chapter keywords
Bone mineral density, rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, heparin, lithium, aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapeutic drugs, proton pump inhibitors

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a disorder. It is characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes a person to an increased risk of fracture. Several studies looking at the bone mineral density (BMD) in India, from Lucknow, Hyderabad, and Chennai, recommended that Indians have lower BMD than western Caucasians. Hip fracture is a serious result of osteoporosis. It is the incidence in India seems to be somewhat similar to that reported from East and South-East Asian countries. Vertebral fracture and others fractures may include back pain, height loss and disabling kyphosis. It is common in Indians as in Caucasian populations, and as in Western countries, very few of these fractures are diagnosed. There are several risk factors (genetic factors, age, sex, nutrition, exercise, menstrual function, smoking and alcohol) of osteoporosis. Previous fragility fracture is the most important risk factor for fracture. Chronic diseases with inflammatory components that increase skeletal remodeling, such as rheumatoid arthritis, increase the risk of osteoporosis. Some drugs (corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, heparin, lithium, aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapeutic drugs, and proton pump inhibitors) also lead to osteoporosis.

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