Chapter-075 Medical Evaluation of Nephrolithiasis

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Bhadada Sanjay Kumar
2. Gupta Sushil Kumar
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. PGIMER Chandigarh, India, (ESICON 2014); PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
2. Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
Chapter keywords
Renal stone disease, idiopathic hypercalciuria, hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, Diarrheal syndrome, hypokalemia, mild hyperoxaluria, cystinuria, autosomal recessive disorder


Renal stone disease is general with a worldwide prevalence of between 2% and 20%. Kidney stones are categorized as either staghorn or non-staghorn. The metabolic causes of renal stones are diverse. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is clear by levels of urinary calcium excretion in a 24-hour urine sample more than 300 mg/day in men or 250 mg/day in women or higher than 4 mg/kg body weight per day, regardless of gender and age, in the absence of hypercalcemia. Diarrhea states may predispose to uric acid nephrolithiasis due to low urine volume and urinary pH. Hypocitraturia may effect from distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), chronic Diarrheal syndrome, hypokalemia, urinary tract infection, but mostly it is of unfamiliar etiology. Most cases of increased urinary oxalate found in stone forming patients are defined by secondary or mild hyperoxaluria. Infection stones form in the setting of upper urinary tract infection. Cystinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Kidney stone evaluation can be done by assessment of risk factors. Medical evaluation of nephrolithiasis chapter also explains about different types of evaluation methods, tests, the management system for diseases, etc.

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