Normal sexual growth and reproductive function in females depend on a whole hypothalamopituitary ovarian axis. The causes of primary ovarian failure can be congenital or acquired and depending on the etiology can present as either primary or secondary amenorrhea. Turner’s syndrome, characterized by total or partial monosomy of X chromosome, is the prototype in this group. The acquired causes of primary ovarian insufficiency are autoimmune oophoritis and ovarian damage. An epidemiologic survey has shown estimated the prevalence of Sheehan’s syndrome in 3.2% of women 20–39 years old and 4.18% of women >40 years age. Evaluation of girls with delayed puberty/primary amenorrhea should include family history. Tall stature can point to isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Swyer’s syndrome or aromatase deficiency. The objectives of treatment of hypogonadism in children and adolescents are to induce and maintain secondary sexual characters, promote pubertal growth spurt, ensure regular menstruation, etc. Long-term complications of hypogonadism are due to estrogen deficiency. Newer methods of cryopreservation (vitrification) and in vitro maturation of immature oocytes harvested from antral follicles in women before chemotherapy promise better results.