Chapter-009 HIV and Diabetes

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Kalra Sanjay
2. Salam Ranabir
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and B.R.I.D.E., Karnal 132 001, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE Karnal; Indian J Endocrinology Metabolism, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital, Karnal-132001, Haryana, India, Indian J Endocrinology and Metabolism; J of Social Health in Diabetes (JoSH Diabetes), Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India
2. Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Imphal, Manipur, India, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India
Chapter keywords
Diabetes, triglyceride, hepatic steatosis, lipodystrophy, lopinavir, glycosylated hemoglobin, bupropion, dyslipidemia, stavudine


HIV infection has now become a manageable chronic disease with the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, HAART is associated with a wide range of side effects including metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes along with lipid disorders. Such disorders have been recorded with increased frequency in patients with HIV infection and on treatment with HAART from several parts of the world. HAART has been shown to be associated with dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy and insulin resistance. HIV protease inhibitor (PI) therapy has been suspected in the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia. Its incidence, categorization of diabetes mellitus among HIV patients, etiopathogenesis and screening for diabetes, strategies to manage hyperglycemia, management of pre-existing diabetes among HIV patients and management of diabetes detected simultaneously with HIV are well described in this chapter.

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