Chapter-093 Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

1. Sachan Alok
2. Reddy Amaresh P
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, Sri Venkateswara, Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
2. Narayana Medical institutions, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
Chapter keywords
Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, twin cycle hypothesis, acanthosis nigricans, pubarche, hirsutism


Metabolic syndrome cause tissue resistance to insulin and the link between insulin resistance and obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia. Fetal and Neonatal Onset of Adult Diseases describes the practice of feeding newborn infants high-caloric high-protein diets; weight gain is responsible for the epidemic of obesity. Insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia and low HDL cholesterol etc. factors plays role is described by the twin cycle hypothesis. The proinflammatory and prothrombotic states of metabolic syndrome are derived from the secretory activity of adipokine, myokines and hepatokines. The clinical features of the metabolic syndrome are family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, CAD, acanthosis nigricans, premature pubarche, hirsutism etc. Metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed with abdominal obesity and the presence of two or more clinical features. Principles of prevention of obesity rests on identification of subjects with modifiable risk factors, dietary assessment, screening factors such as birth weight, family history etc. A lifestyle change describes behavior modification, dietary modifications, physical activity, pharmacologic therapy and community Intervention Programs.

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