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Chapter-098 Changing Human Architecture and Energy Equations in Obesity

BOOK TITLE: ESI Manual of Clinical Endocrinology

Author
1. Joshi Shilpa S
2. Joshi Shashank R
ISBN
9789351526476
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/12535_123
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2015
Pages
8
Author Affiliations
1. Mumbai Diet and Health Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2. Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group, Hospital, Consultant Endocrinologist, Lilavati and Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Bhatia Hospital, Joshi Clinic, Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, A-791, Bandra Reclamation, Bandra (W), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Bhatia Hospital, Joshi Clinic, Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, A-791, Bandra, Reclamation, Bandra (W), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, S. L. Raheja Hospital, Bhatia Hospital, and Sir H. N. Hospital, Mumbai, Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Lilavati and Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; Grant Medical College and Sir Jj Group of Hospitals, Mumbai 400 008, Maharashtra, India, Joshi Clinic, Lilavati and Bhatia Hospital; Association of Physicians of India (API), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Joshi Clinic, Lilavati and Bhatia Hospital; Association of Physicians of India (API), Indian Academy of Diabetes, Joshi Clinic, Mumbai, Maharashtra, Indi
Chapter keywords
Obesity, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension

Abstract

This century has witnessed alarming increases in obesity across the globe. This increase in the severity of obesity has also translated into an increase in the prevalence of outcomes such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Many manual tasks have been replaced by automated machines and labor-saving devices. Most occupations these days are sedentary. Low levels of physical activity are associated with an increased risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. The causes of a pandemic of obesity are eating habits, sedentary life style, sedentary life style, psychological stress, and secondary obesity. The balance between energy intake and energy expenditure determines body energy stores. The physical activity guidelines for adult Indians are listed out in the chapter. Physical activity must be individualized on the basis of person’s abilities and comorbidities. Much like pharmacological therapy it requires a prescription with careful consideration of both appropriate dosage and frequency.

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