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Chapter-22 Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

BOOK TITLE: Monitoring in Anesthesia and Critical Care

Author
1. Rath Girija P
2. Lamsal Ritesh
ISBN
9789352700431
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/18044_23
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
10
Author Affiliations
1. All India institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Chapter keywords
Intracranial pressure, ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure, CPP, head injury, benign intracranial hypertension, subarachnoid hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, epidural monitoring

Abstract

Intracranial pressure (ICP) refers to the pressure within the cranial cavity and is influenced by the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cerebral circulation, and intracranial abnormalities. Intracranial pressure is determined by the volume of intracranial contents and the cranial vault. Measurement of ICP is of great value in neurocritical care because clinical signs of raised ICP are not always reliable, may not be elicited in several cases, and may reflect only during later stages of cerebral compression. Intracranial pressure monitoring can be either used for establishing a diagnosis or as a guide for maintaining an optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The three cardinal clinical features of raised ICP are headache, vomiting, and papilledema. Intraventricular monitoring, Subarachnoid monitoring, Epidural monitoring, Subdural monitoring, Intraparenchymal monitoring are various methods of intracranial pressure monitoring invasive techniques. Newer, noninvasive techniques for continuous brain monitoring like transcutaneous oximetry, transcranial Doppler, assessment of CPP, and optic nerve sheath diameter will provide new impetus for ICP monitoring in the future.

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