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Chapter-17 Emergencies

BOOK TITLE: Manual of Clinical and Practical Medicine

Author
1. Sainani GS
2. Sainani Rajesh G
ISBN
9789352701278
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/18069_18
Edition
2/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
62
Author Affiliations
1. Grant Medical College and J.J.Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Visakhapatnam, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai; Armed Forces (for life); Chicago Medical School and Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA; 10 Other Foreign Universities & Several Indian Universities, CSI, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; National CSI, Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; Grant Medical College & JJ Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; National Academy of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Emeritus International Advisor, Royal College of Physicians, London; Chicago Medical School and Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA, Jaslok Hospital and Research Center; Grant Medical College and JJ Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2. Jaslok Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia; Jaslok Hospital, Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai; GI Physiology & Motility Laboratory, Digestive Diseases and Endoscopy Centre, Motiben Dalvi Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Chapter keywords
Hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, hypokalemia, hypokalemic periodic paralysis, hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis

Abstract

This chapter discusses the emergencies for hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, hypokalemia, hypokalemic periodic paralysis, hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis poisoning, organophosphorus compound poisoning, barbiturate poisoning, salicylate poisoning (salicylism), methyl alcohol poisoning, opioid poisoning, acetaminophen poisoning, aluminum phosphide poisoning, cyanide poisoning, arsenic poisoning, mercury poisoning, lead poisoning, iron poisoning, carbon monoxide poisoning, caustic ingestion, hydrocarbon poisoning (gasoline, kerosene, mineral oil, paint thinners, etc.), food poisoning and acute gastroenteritis, Ogilvie syndrome, botulism, disseminated intravenous coagulation (DIC), snake bite, and scorpion bite (sting). Hyponatremia is defined as serum sodium (Na) less than 135 mEq/L due to excess of body water relative to body sodium. Hypocalcemia is serum Ca less than 8.4 mg/dL with normal serum albumin or ionized calcium less than 4.2 mg/dL. Barbiturate poisoning is due to consumption of larger than therapeutic dose of barbiturates.

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