Chapter-04 Gastrointestinal System

BOOK TITLE: Manual of Clinical and Practical Medicine

1. Sainani GS
2. Sainani Rajesh G
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Grant Medical College and J.J.Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Visakhapatnam, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai; Armed Forces (for life); Chicago Medical School and Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA; 10 Other Foreign Universities & Several Indian Universities, CSI, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; National CSI, Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; Grant Medical College & JJ Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; National Academy of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Emeritus International Advisor, Royal College of Physicians, London; Chicago Medical School and Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA, Jaslok Hospital and Research Center; Grant Medical College and JJ Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2. Jaslok Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia; Jaslok Hospital, Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai; GI Physiology & Motility Laboratory, Digestive Diseases and Endoscopy Centre, Motiben Dalvi Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Chapter keywords
Gastrointestinal system, GI, hepatobiliary disorder, general examination, hepatobiliary system, liver, spleen, kidney, liver abscess, pyogenic liver abscess, irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, acute pancreatitis


The gastrointestinal (GI) system is a system of serially connected organs and measures 8 m in length, extending from the mouth to the anus. There are secretory glands all along the GI tract. The functions of GI system are propulsion, processing, absorption and elimination of ingested food. Other functions relate to hormonal secretion and immune response. This chapter covers the symptoms of GI disorders, symptoms of hepatobiliary disorders, general examination of GI and hepatobiliary systems. Symptoms of hepat obiliary disorders include jaundice, upper abdominal pain, abdominal distension (ascites), edema legs, loss of appetite, loss of weight, bleeding—petechiae, ecchymosis, hematemesis, melena, fever, fatigue, weakness, itching (pruritus), altered mental state, gynecomastia, loss of secondary sex characters, and decreased libido. Liver abscesses are either pyogenic or amebic. Amebic abscess is large and usually single whereas pyogenic abscesses are multiple. In Indian subcontinent and other Asian countries, abscesses are generally due to parasitic infections (amebic, echinococcal and other helminthic organisms).

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