Chapter-06 Respiratory System

BOOK TITLE: Manual of Clinical and Practical Medicine

1. Sainani GS
2. Sainani Rajesh G
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Grant Medical College and J.J.Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Endocrine and Diabetes Centre, Visakhapatnam, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai; Armed Forces (for life); Chicago Medical School and Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA; 10 Other Foreign Universities & Several Indian Universities, CSI, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; National CSI, Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; Grant Medical College & JJ Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; National Academy of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, Emeritus International Advisor, Royal College of Physicians, London; Chicago Medical School and Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA, Jaslok Hospital and Research Center; Grant Medical College and JJ Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2. Jaslok Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia; Jaslok Hospital, Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai; GI Physiology & Motility Laboratory, Digestive Diseases and Endoscopy Centre, Motiben Dalvi Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Chapter keywords
Respiratory system, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS, obstructive sleep apnea, pulmonary hypertension, bronchiectasis, pulmonary fibrosis


Evaluation of a patient with respiratory disease involves proper history taking, physical examination, results of investigations such as chest X-ray, complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lung function tests, sputum examination and Mantoux test. Special investigations such as chest computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy, diagnostic pleural aspiration, and pleural and lung biopsies are carried out whenever necessary. Common respiratory symptoms are cough, sputum, dyspnea, wheezing, stridor, chest pain, symptoms pertaining to upper respiratory tract, and hemoptysis. This chapter covers the past history, family history, personal history, occupational history, general examination, examination of upper respiratory tract, regions of the chest, surface making of trachea and lungs, examination of chest, relevant investigations, and clinical cases. A Case of bronchial asthma, case of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), case of obstructive sleep apnea—hypopnea syndrome, case of pulmonary hypertension, case of bronchiectasis, case of lung abscess, case of sarcoidosis, case of bronchogenic carcinoma, case of collapse of lung, case of pulmonary fibrosis, case of pleurisy, case of empyema, and case of pneumothorax are the clinical cases, which are discussed in this chapter.

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