Chapter-04 Abdomen

BOOK TITLE: Surgical Anatomy: A Student’s Manual

1. Mazumdar Sibani
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, India, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (IPGMEandR), Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Chapter keywords
Rectus sheath, inguinal canal, gastric triangle, stomach bed, common bile duct, portal vein, renal fascia, porta hepatis, lesser omentum, urinary bladder, ectopic testis, celiac trunk, fallopian tube, pelvic diaphragm


This chapter focuses on the surgical anatomy of abdomen. Rectus sheath is an aponeurotic envelope for the rectus abdominis muscle on each side of linea alba. Inguinal canal is a muscular canal 4 cm long extending from deep inguinal ring to the superficial inguinal ring. Hesselbach’s triangle is a triangular area situated in lower part of anterior abdominal wall. Gastric triangle is an area overlying anterosuperior surface of stomach, which is not in relation with any viscera. Stomach bed is defined as the collection of structures on which stomach rests in supine posture separated by a cavity of lesser sac. The superficial veins of anterior abdominal wall are not prominent normally. In some conditions like portal hypertension, inferior vena caval obstruction, they become prominent. Embryologically, gut is a midline structure. Because of these, the visceral pain arising from gut is first felt over the midline. Pain arising from stomach and duodenum is referred at epigastrium. Pain from the rest of the small intestine and ascending colon is referred to the area around umbilicus. From rest of the gut pain is referred to the hypogastrium. Bilateral ligation of vas in the upper part of scrotum is done in male for permanent sterilization and this process is called vasectomy. There are 52 questions with their answers are also given in this chapter which are very helpful readers.

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