Chapter-05 Thorax

BOOK TITLE: Surgical Anatomy: A Student’s Manual

1. Mazumdar Sibani
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, India, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (IPGMEandR), Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Chapter keywords
Sternal angle, parietal pleura, azygos lobe, bronchopulmonary segment, azygos vein, inferior hemiazygos vein, coronary circulation, interventricular septum, superior mediastinum, pericardial cavity, thoracic duct


Surgical anatomy of thorax has been discussed in this chapter. Sternal angle is the junction between lower parts of manubrium with the upper end of the body of sternum. Anterior primary rami of third to sixth thoracic spinal nerves are called typical intercostal nerves. They are confined only to thoracic wall. Parietal pleura is thicker than the pulmonary pleura, and is subdivided into four parts. It develops from somatopleura layer of lateral plate mesoderm. Costodiaphragmatic recess of pleura is a cleft-like potential space between the lower limit of the pleural sac and the lower border of the corresponding lung. Root of the lung is a short and broad pedal, which connects the medial surface of the lung to the mediastinum. Bronchopulmonary segments are well-defined anatomical, functional and surgical segments of the lung, each one being aerated by a tertiary or segmental bronchus. Azygos vein drains the right-sided thoracic wall upper-lumbar region, mediastinal structure and bronchus. Accessory hemiazygos vein or inferior hemiazygos vein, artery supply to heart (coronary circulation), blood supply of interventricular septum, superior mediastinum, coronary sinus, constrictions of esophagus with clinical importance, etc. are other important topics which are also throughout this chapter.

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