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BOOK TITLE: Medical-Surgical Nursing (2 Volumes)
Respiratory system is vital to the human body. The action of breathing in and out is due to changes of pressure within the thorax, in comparison with the outside. Ventilation is the term for the movement of air into and out of the alveoli. Health history includes the history of the present illness, chief complaints, the past medical history, family history, review of systems and functional assessment. A sputum culture identifies pathogens present in the sputum. The sensitivity test determines which antibiotics will be effective against those pathogens. Pulmonary angiography is used to help diagnose pulmonary embolism or other pulmonary vessel disorders. Bronchoscopy can also be used to collect bronchial and/or lung secretions and to perform tissue biopsy. Pulmonary function tests, chest radiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are some other diagnostic test to inspect disorders. The chapter also features topics such as care of patients in respiratory intensive care unit and ventilator care, classification of respiratory disorders, lower respiratory tract disorders, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, empyema, disorders of pleura and pleural space, etc.