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Chapter-19 General and Local Anesthesia

BOOK TITLE: Manual for Dental Hygienist

Author
1. Awasthi Maj Gen PN
ISBN
9789352702282
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14199_20
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
4
Author Affiliations
1. Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC), Pune, Maharashtra, India; Indian Army Dental Corps, Dental Council of India; Manav Rachna Dental College, Faridabad, Haryana, India, Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC), Pune, Maharashtra, India; Indian Army Dental Corps; Dental Council of India; Manav Rachna Dental College, Faridabad, Haryana, India
Chapter keywords
General anesthesia, local anesthesia, local anesthetic agent, nerve conduction, topical anesthesia, surface anesthesia, local infiltration, field block, nerve block, ketamine, nitrous oxide

Abstract

General anesthesia (GA) for dental care in children and adult is sometimes necessary in order to provide safe, efficient and effective care. Depending on the patient, it can be administered in an ambulatory or hospitalized case. The safety of the patient and practitioner should be of paramount importance regardless of the method used. Although GA can be given in the dental office in presence of a qualified anesthetist and essential equipment, the safest place to administer is the hospital. Ketamine is a new nonbarbiturate general anesthetic agent. Anesthetic ether contains 96–98% diethyl ether. Local anesthesia (LA) is loss of sensation, especially pain in a localized area without loss of consciousness. The mode of action of local anesthetics is to block nerve conduction, probably by preventing normal passage of ions through the nerve membrane. All sensation, i.e. pain, temperature, pressure and motor functions are affected by the local anesthetic agent. The types of LA used in dentistry are topical or surface anesthesia, local infiltration, field block and nerve block.

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