The relationships between science and religion have long and complex histories that continue to influence current relationships. Throughout history, dialog and/or conflict often accompanied the relations between science, religion, and religious communities. There was “sacred” and “common” knowledge. The “sacred” knowledge was available to theologians. A sociologist had no place there. The “common” knowledge, which would include science, belonged to nontheologians, and sociologists had a say in this field. This chapter covers the five sociological models of the relationship between science and religion, past conflicts between science and religion, current conflicts between science and religion and their resolution, and understanding the relationship between science and religion. A number of models for the religion-science relationship have been offered, but each of them has many limitations. None of them is sufficient to explain the relationship between science and religion, but each of them contributes a small part to a better understanding of these relationships. Almost every interpretation of the relationship between science and religion was under the influence of social (particularly ideological and political) conditions in which they were created.