Religion is said to be knowledge, and it is said to be ignorance. Religion is said to be freedom, and it is said to be dependence. Religion is said to be desire, and it is said to be freedom from all desires. Religion is said to be silent contemplation, and it is said to be splendid and stately worship of God. Throughout the history of psychiatry and religion as well as the sciences and the humanities, it has been difficult to communicate with each other without conflicts about how we human beings should understand and define ourselves and the world. Religion, science, and politics have been fundamental sources of beliefs, influence, and power. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. This chapter covers the psychiatry and religion between science and pseudoscience, postsecular (theistic) versus secular (atheistic) psychiatry, spirituality in science, religion, and psychiatry, faith-healing connection, medicine of person, and spiritual psychiatry, religious and spiritual problems and culture-bound psychiatric syndromes, and global and mental health promotion for empathic civilization.