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Chapter-03 Anatomical Causes of Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriages

BOOK TITLE: Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriages

Author
1. Desai Pankaj
ISBN
9789352702763
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/18032_4
Edition
3/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
25
Author Affiliations
1. Medical College, Baroda, Janani Maternity Hospital, Baroda, Medical College and SSG Hospital Baroda, Medical College, Baroda, India, Medical College and SSG Hospital, Baroda, Gujarat, (Unit IV), Medical College and SSG Hospital, Baroda, Medical College and SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, Medical College and SSG Hospital, Baroda, Dept of Obs and Gyn Medical College, Baroda, Medical College and SSG Hospital, Baroda, India, FOGSI; Janani Maternity Hospital, Baroda, India, Vadodara, Medical College, Baroda, Gujarat, India, Janani Maternity Hospital, Baroda, Gujarat, India, Medical Collage and SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, Baroda, Gujarat, India, Baroda, Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, Baroda Medical College and Sir Sayajirao General Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, Janani Maternity Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; Medical College and SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; Societies of India (FOGSI), 2007, Medical College, SSG Hospital and Baroda, Gujarat, India
Chapter keywords
Recurrent spontaneous miscarriage, diethylstilbestrol, DES, infertility, pregnancy loss, preterm labor, Müllerian abnormality, human reproduction, congenital uterine anomaly, acquired uterine anomaly, cervical incompetence

Abstract

Abnormalities of the uterus are relatively common and might make embryo implantation and fetal development difficult. It may lead to infertility, pregnancy loss, preterm labor and delivery, and malpresentations. Also, these abnormalities can produce dyspareunia and menstrual symptoms like dysmenorrhea and rarely amenorrhea. Congenital uterine anomalies include Müllerian abnormalities and those following maternal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure. Acquired abnormalities that can develop during a woman’s lifetime include benign uterine lesions like leiomyomas and polyps and uterine scarring from diverse causes. This chapter covers the European society of human reproduction and embryology or European society for gynaecological endoscopy consensus on diagnosis of female genital anomalies, congenital uterine anomalies, acquired uterine anomalies, and cervical incompetence. Cervical incompetence presents with a history of recurrent second or early 3rd trimester fetal loss, after painless dilatation of the cervix, prolapse or rupture of the membranes, and expulsion of a live fetus despite minimal uterine activity. Risk factors for cervical incompetence include congenital uterine anomalies, maternal DES exposure, surgeries involving the cervix, and history of trauma to the cervix.

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