Chapter-05 Ecosystem

BOOK TITLE: Essentials of Environmental Sciences and Hygiene for Nursing and Pharmacy Students

1. Kaur Satinder
2. Rawat HCL
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, University College of Nursing, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India
2. University College of Nursing, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India
Chapter keywords
Ecosystem, ecology, geographical ecosystem, biotic component, energy flow, material cycling, hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, forest ecosystem, grassland ecosystem, desert ecosystem, aquatic ecosystem


Ecosystem is the community of living organism, i.e. plants and animals who shares common environment. It is basically deals with the term ecology and environment. Ecology include only the study of living organisms only in biological means and relation with each other and environment while ecosystem includes study of whole environment of living organisms, their relation with environment and with each other by all means biological, physical and chemical. The nature of ecosystem is based on geographical features such as hills, mountains, plains, lakes, rivers, islands etc. It also includes climatic conditions like temperature, pressure, rainfall, amount of sunlight, etc. Ecosystem has two major components i.e. biotic components and abiotic components. Ecosystem is self-sustained, functional unit. The main structural features of ecosystem are species composition, stratification structure, trophic structure, standing state, and standing crop. Functions of ecosystem, energy flow and material cycling in ecosystem, and characteristics of all types of ecosystems are the other topics which are also covered briefly throughout this chapter.

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