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Chapter-14 Composition and Metabolism of Carbohydrates

BOOK TITLE: Essentials of Nutrition and Biochemistry for Basic BSc Nursing

Author
1. Clement I
ISBN
9789385891526
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/18059_15
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
32
Author Affiliations
1. VSS College of Nursing, Bangalore, VSS College of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, VSS College of Nursing, Nagadevanahalli, Mysore Ring Road, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, VSS College of Nursing, No. 78, Nagadevenahalli, Mysore Ring Road, Bengaluru, India, VSS College of Nursing Nagadevanahalli, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, VSS College of Nursing, Nagadevanahalli, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, VSS College of Nursing, Nagadevanahalli, Bengaluru (Karnataka), India, Columbia College of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Carbohydrate, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, glycogenesis, blood sugar level, blood glucose monitoring, glucose tolerance test

Abstract

This chapter describes the composition and metabolism of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates include a large group of compounds commonly known as starches or sugars, widely distributed in plants and animals. Chemically, they are described as polyhydric alcohols, having potentially active aldehyde and ketone groups. In general, carbohydrates are white solids, freely soluble in water with the exception of certain polysaccharides. Carbohydrates of lower molecular weight have a sweet taste. This chapter covers the types, structure, composition and uses of carbohydrate, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, glycogenesis, cori cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle, glycogenolysis, regulation of blood sugar level, blood glucose monitoring, glucose tolerance test (GTT), Barfoed’s Test, Benedict’s test, diabetes mellitus, glycogen storages diseases, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, and disorders of pyruvate metabolism.

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