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Chapter-05 HIV Infection

BOOK TITLE: Antibiotic Essentials

Author
1. Hage Jean E.
2. Sax Paul E.
3. Gran Arthur
4. Baron Jeffrey
5. Wu Gina L.
6. Gian John
ISBN
9789385999079
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14129_6
Edition
15/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
54
Author Affiliations
1. Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York, State University of New York, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York and State University of New York School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York
2. Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
3. Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York, State University of New York, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York and State University of New York School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York
4. Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York, Roswell Park Cancer Center, Buffalo, New York
5. Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York
6. Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York
Chapter keywords
Human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, viral transmission, AIDS, acute HIV infection, HIV testing, initial assessment, antiretroviral treatment, antiretroviral treatment failure, prophylaxis, opportunistic infection

Abstract

Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) leads to a chronic and without treatment usually fatal infection characterized by progressive immunodeficiency, a long clinical latency period, and opportunistic infections. The hallmark of HIV disease is infection and viral replication within T-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 antigen (helper-inducer lymphocytes), a critical component of normal cell-mediated immunity. HIV infection can also disrupt blood monocyte, tissue macrophage, and B-lymphocyte (humoral immunity) function, predisposing to infection with encapsulated bacteria. Without treatment, the average time from acquisition of HIV to an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection is about 10 years; survival then averages 1–2 years. Antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections have markedly improved the overall prognosis of HIV disease. A detailed description on stages of HIV infection, initial assessment of HIV infection, indications for treatment of HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV, treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV, HIV coinfections (HBV/HCV), HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been provided throughout this chapter.

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